Linux Commands Reference

Command Description
cat Read the contents of text files. See also: less
cd 'change directory' – move in and out of directories on the file system
chmod Set/change the permissions on a file/directory
cp Copy a file/directory to a new location
dpkg Debian package manager. Another tool, along with apt-get, for installing, updating and removing packages from your server
ln Create a link to a file/folder.
Soft links (ln –s) are similar to Shortcuts in Windows, they point you to the original file/folder. If the original file/folder is deleted, the link will no longer work
ls Show the contents of directories
less Read the contents of text files
mv Move files between directories, or can also rename a file
nano Editor for configuration files. Edit and write files, such as configuration files, from the command line
pwd 'present working directory' – shows what directory you are currently in
rm Delete files; use rm -rf to delete directories.
Use carefully, there is no Recycle Bin to retrieve any accidentally deleted files
rmdir Deletes empty directories. Will not delete a directory if there are files in it; see rm -rf for this
sudo For user accounts which have administrative access, 'sudo' allows them to perform such admin commands; elevates the rights of users who are allowed to do so
tar Tool for bundling many files/directories into one file (tarball) for ease of backup
unzip Extract/unzip a compressed .zip file
wget Download files from the internet. Very feature rich tool with many options
which All commands you type are files saved somewhere on the system, and when you type the command linux runs that file . 'which' shows you the location of a command. 'which ls' shows you the ls command is stored in the /bin directory (/bin/ls)